Vermont Deparment of Education

For more detailed information about laws and requirement in Vermont Public Schools concerning
English Language Learners

Title VI Civil Rights Act, 1964

  • This law prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, and national origin in a school districts programs and activities that receive federal finanical assistance.

Lau vs. Nichols, 1974

  • A school district must provide language instruction that is meaningful and gives non-English speaking students both social and academic language skills. Parents should be communicated with in their home language.

Equal Educational Opportunities Act, 1974 (EEOA)

  • This law is designed to require school districts to establish language programs and eliminate language barriers in school.

Castaneda vs. Pickard, 1981

  • Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals formulated a method to determine if a school district is in compliance with EEOA.

Plyler vs Doe, 1982

  • The Supreme Court Ruled that the 14th Amendment prohibits states from denying a free public education to undocumented alien children.


  • US Department of Education (USDE) policy guidance on accountability for recently arrived & former LEP students

US Department of Education

  • USDE Office for Civil Rights- EL Resources:

Office for Civil Rights

  • References on Refugee Integration

Center for Applied Linguistics

  • Cultural Information Resources

Learning about other cultures

Migration Policy Institute